The 3D printing technologies there are many names for them even more because of patent restrictions. However, you can try to divide the technologies in the main areas:
This includes methods such as layer-by-layer fusing (FDM) and multi-jet printing (MJM). The basis of this method is the extrusion (extrusion) of consumables with consistent formation of the finished product. As a rule, consumables consist of thermoplastics or composite materials on their basis.
Smelting, sintering or bonding of
This approach is based on the composition of the powder material together. The formation is performed in different ways. The simplest is bonding, as in the case with three-dimensional inkjet printing (3DP). Such printers to be applied on the working platform a thin layer of powder, which are then selectively glued together with an adhesive. Powders can be composed of virtually any material that can be crushed to the state of powder, plastic, wood, metal.
This model of the Aston Martin, owned by James bond have been successfully printed on a SLS printer company Voxeljet or less successfully blown up during the filming of “Coordinates Skayfoll” instead of expensive original
the Most popular in this category steel laser sintering (SLS and DMLS) and melting (SLM), allowing to create solid metal parts. As in the case with three-dimensional inkjet printing, these devices apply a thin layer of powder, but the material is not glued together, and sintered or melted with a laser. Laser sintering (SLS) is used for plastic and metal powders, although metal granules usually have a fusible sheath, and after printing is additionally sintered in special furnaces. DMLS – SLS variant plants with more powerful lasers, allowing you to directly sintering metal powders without additives. SLM printers include not just the sintering of the particles, and their complete melting, which allows you to create monolithic models do not suffer from the relative fragility caused by the porosity of the structure. Usually, printers metal powders are equipped with vacuum working chambers or replace the air with inert gases. Such increasing complexity caused by the necessity of working with metals and alloys are susceptible to oxidation, such as titanium.
Stereolithographically printers use special liquid materials called “composite resins”. The term “photopolymerization” refers to a material’s ability to harden when exposed to light. Typically, these materials respond to irradiation with ultraviolet light.
Resin is poured into a special container with a movable platform, which is installed at the position near the liquid surface. The resin layer covering the platform corresponds to one layer of the digital model. Then a thin layer of resin is processed by a laser beam, the solidification at the points of contact. At the end of the exposure platform, with the final layer immersed by the thickness of the next layer, and exposure is performed again.
Some 3D printers build models using sheet materials – paper, foil, plastic film.
The material layers are glued to each other and are cut to the contours of the digital model with a laser or blade.
Such installations are well suited for prototyping and can use very cheap consumables, including plain office paper. However, the complexity and noise of such printers, coupled with disabilities produced models limit their popularity.
The most popular methods of 3D printing used in households and office environments have become the modeling layer-by-layer fused deposition modeling (FDM) and laser stereolithography (SLA).
Focus on these technologies in more detail.